South Africa and its fellow countries on the continent need to boost innovation if they hope to thrive. How? By aiming for Jupiter…
If we were to speculate what motivated Siya Xuza, wunderkind, inventor of a new rocket fuel, Harvard alum and one of South Africa’s innovation leaders, what would the conclusions be? Did he yearn after a career in science? Was he aiming to lift his family out of poverty? Might he fancy himself as the next Isaac Newton?
No, he wanted to go to Jupiter.
After seeing an aeroplane for the first time at age five, as it dropped election pamphlets preempting South Africa’s first democratic elections, Xuza was overcome with curiosity. His quest to find out what an aeroplane was and how it worked led him to discover something far bigger: the king of the gods itself, the largest planet in our solar system.
“As I start learning about aeroplanes, I learn about rockets. Rockets go to a part of the universe known as space and in space there are planets. As I learn about planets, I learn the biggest in the solar system is a planet known as Jupiter. And so, at the age of five, I decided to go to Jupiter.”
Absurd? Fanciful? Yes. Everyone looked at him as if he was crazy. Yet this moonshot would guide his life, teach him about failure and helping him understand that success is not just about pursuing the possible. It’s about reaching toward the impossible and discovering so much along the way.
No Half Measures in Innovation
This all-or-nothing view may seem absurd and lacking in true grounding, yet Xuza’s own success challenges that assumption. But don’t just take the word of a maverick rocket scientist. Ask the CTO of one of the modern world’s most maverick technology firms – JB Straubel of Tesla:
“We took information [gathered from previous products] and used it to bootstrap ourselves into the next product. Something that Tesla has done repeatedly and continues to do today, is we’d bet the entire company on the next product. Instead of cautiously getting one product under our belt and nursing that to success and make some profit from it, we never felt that would let us grow fast enough. It’s a phenomenal approach to grow very quickly, but it is very risky and very stressful.”
What is the common thread here? Jumping into the deep end. Taking a chance. Doing what others say can’t be done. Indeed, Valerie Fox, Chief Innovation Consultant at The Pivotal Point and a stalwart evangelist of incubator culture, does not even embrace modern notions such as ‘fail fast’ or ‘fail forward’:
“I don’t believe in the word ‘failure,’ because failure is when you stop. What I found in the entrepreneurial world is that they don’t stop. Entrepreneurs don’t stop. It might not work. That doesn’t mean they failed, just that it didn’t work. It’s always about how you pick yourself up and apply it to the next thing.”
Spreading Innovation’s Message
All three were speaking at the recent Accenture Innovation Conference, which pursued the theme of innovation and how to ignite it among people, companies and countries. This is not a ‘nice to have’: innovation is fast becoming a necessary catalyst in forging competitive businesses. Dovetailing with this is the rise of digitisation, which empowers companies to really start flexing their innovation muscles.
“Embracing innovation from the top of the company is what drives innovation in a company,” said William Mzimba, Chief Executive of Accenture South Africa and Chairman of Accenture Sub-Saharan Africa. “We are seeing businesses leveraging digital as an enabler for innovation, and they are leveraging digital technologies to change their business models and make sure that they can set up platforms for innovation.”
Yet while this message resonates in broad strokes, at more nuanced levels South African companies are still slow to adopt innovation thinking. Accenture’s third annual Innovation Index reveals that small gains have been made, but not enough. Out of the businesses surveyed, only 8 percent qualified at the top tier of Innovation Value Champions. In terms of which digital platforms are being used to drive innovation, the laggards perform best with mobile (54% as opposed 70% among top innovators), but fail to capitalise on analytics (36% vs 80%), cloud technologies (45% vs 65%) and social media (42% vs 80%). Even though digital presents opportunities, the challenge appears to be the entrenched cultures at companies.
Linda Trim, Director of Giant Leap Workspace Specialists – a past winner of the Accenture Innovation Index – laid out what makes her company innovative: “Every time we see a gap, we’re a small team and we make quick decisions. Because we’re self-funded, we’ve always chosen to collaborate with others people to get to the market quickly and do what we want.”
Other attendees at the event reflected this as well: the ability to move on an idea, to experiment instead of stifling inspiration and to take risks are key to innovative thinking. Mzimba also noted that, from a practical perspective, companies should shift away from pipeline thinking where products are conceived and delivered in the ‘build it and they will come’ mantra. Instead companies should reorientate themselves as platforms, sandboxes even, where ideas can take root and have a chance at reaching for the sun or, perhaps, Jupiter.
Cultivating Business Innovation
This way of thinking is evident in many trailblazing companies, be they old guard turned new such as GE, the anything-goes world of Amazon or challengers of the status quo such as Tesla.
“Innovation has to be culturally embedded in your organisation,” said Straubel. “It can’t be something that is just a side project or whole separate little team. I have seen that at a lot of the big corporates. Inevitably we find those innovation teams are not connected to the main company. They have the right culture in of themselves, but you need to find a way to spread that culture into the whole company or else it really can’t have the effect that you want it to have.”
To adherents of innovation advice, Straubel’s comment may seem contradictory. Often companies are encouraged to have separate teams that drive innovation goals without the interference of the larger organisation. Salim Ismail, renowned technology investor and co-founder of the Singularity University, defined the issue as a company’s immune system will often try to kill innovation. Yet this is not at odds with Straubel’s view – as the Tesla CTO noted: the trick is how you spread that culture through the rest of the enterprise.
“Apple is the master of this technique,” said Ismail. “What Apple does is take a small team that is highly disruptive and take them to the edge of the organisation. They’ll keep them completely stealth and tell them to go disrupt other industries.”
Yet he added that it’s not easy. Walmart failed numerous times before it was able to adopt this approach. The company routinely created edge innovation teams, but these were felled by company interference, being too close to the main company (or mothership, as Ismail terms it) or were brought back into the space too soon. Eventually Walmart learned to create an autonomous entity and slowly adopt its way of thinking instead of amalgamating the entity in a hope of innovation culture through osmosis.
In fact, fear of the unknown often prompts companies to be over-cautious and not take such bold steps. Yet this is exactly what is required. Tesla’s Straubel said the biggest advantage was not knowing what they didn’t know. By not having a manual on how you should build a car, they made something new and superior to the entrenched norms of the industry they were besieging. It is a journey made easier with the help and support of consulting services such as Accenture, but it can’t be accomplished half-heartedly.
Xuza, the maverick rocket scientist and currently battery innovator, brought it all to a succinct point, a philosophical challenge:
“The purpose of my talk was to humbly ask you: what is your Jupiter? What is that impossible vision that you have that will transform your company, your country or your world? What is that Jupiter or how can you help others achieve those Jupiters through innovation? The way we will be able to transform the image of Africa from one that is dark to an Africa that is bright, that takes it rightful place, is through this spirit of innovation.”
Prepare your cam to capture the Blood Moon
On 27 July 2018, South Africans can witness a total lunar eclipse, as the earth’s shadow completely covers the moon.
Also known as a blood or red moon, a total lunar eclipse is the most dramatic of all lunar eclipses and presents an exciting photographic opportunity for any aspiring photographer or would-be astronomers.
“A lunar eclipse is a rare cosmic sight. For centuries these events have inspired wonder, interest and sometimes fear amongst observers. Of course, if you are lucky to be around when one occurs, you would want to capture it all on camera,” says Dana Eitzen, Corporate and Marketing Communications Executive at Canon South Africa.
Canon ambassador and acclaimed landscape photographer David Noton has provided his top tips to keep in mind when photographing this occasion. In South Africa, the eclipse will be visible from about 19h14 on Friday, 27 July until 01h28 on the Saturday morning. The lunar eclipse will see the light from the sun blocked by the earth as it passes in front of the moon. The moon will turn red because of an effect known as Rayleigh Scattering, where bands of green and violet light become filtered through the atmosphere.
A partial eclipse will begin at 20h24 when the moon will start to turn red. The total eclipse begins at about 21h30 when the moon is completely red. The eclipse reaches its maximum at 22h21 when the moon is closest to the centre of the shadow.
David Noton advises:
- Download the right apps to be in-the-know
The sun’s position in the sky at any given time of day varies massively with latitude and season. That is not the case with the moon as its passage through the heavens is governed by its complex elliptical orbit of the earth. That orbit results in monthly, rather than seasonal variations, as the moon moves through its lunar cycle. The result is big differences in the timing of its appearance and its trajectory through the sky. Luckily, we no longer need to rely on weight tables to consult the behaviour of the moon, we can simply download an app on to our phone. The Photographer’s Ephemeris is useful for giving moonrise and moonset times, bearings and phases; while the Photopills app gives comprehensive information on the position of the moon in our sky. Armed with these two apps, I’m planning to shoot the Blood Moon rising in Dorset, England. I’m aiming to capture the moon within the first fifteen minutes of moonrise so I can catch it low in the sky and juxtapose it against an object on the horizon line for scale – this could be as simple as a tree on a hill.
- Invest in a lens with optimal zoom
On the 27th July, one of the key challenges we’ll face is shooting the moon large in the frame so we can see every crater on the asteroid pockmarked surface. It’s a task normally reserved for astronomers with super powerful telescopes, but if you’ve got a long telephoto lens on a full frame DSLR with around 600 mm of focal length, it can be done, depending on the composition. I will be using the Canon EOS 5D Mark IV with an EF 200-400mm f/4L IS USM Ext. 1.4 x lens.
- Use a tripod to capture the intimate details
As you frame up your shot, one thing will become immediately apparent; lunar tracking is incredibly challenging as the moon moves through the sky surprisingly quickly. As you’ll be using a long lens for this shoot, it’s important to invest in a sturdy tripod to help capture the best possible image. Although it will be tempting to take the shot by hand, it’s important to remember that your subject is over 384,000km away from you and even with a high shutter speed, the slightest of movements will become exaggerated.
- Integrate the moon into your landscape
Whilst images of the moon large in the frame can be beautifully detailed, they are essentially astronomical in their appeal. Personally, I’m far more drawn to using the lunar allure as an element in my landscapes, or using the moonlight as a light source. The latter is difficult, as the amount of light the moon reflects is tiny, whilst the lunar surface is so bright by comparison. Up to now, night photography meant long, long exposures but with cameras such as the Canon EOS-1D X Mark II and the Canon EOS 5D Mark IV now capable of astonishing low light performance, a whole new nocturnal world of opportunities has been opened to photographers.
- Master the shutter speed for your subject
The most evocative and genuine use of the moon in landscape portraits results from situations when the light on the moon balances with the twilight in the surrounding sky. Such images have a subtle appeal, mood and believability. By definition, any scene incorporating a medium or wide-angle view is going to render the moon as a tiny pin prick of light, but its presence will still be felt. Our eyes naturally gravitate to it, however insignificant it may seem. Of course, the issue of shutter speed is always there; too slow an exposure and all we’ll see is an unsightly lunar streak, even with a wide-angle lens.
On a clear night, mastering the shutter speed of your camera is integral to capturing the moon – exposing at 1/250 sec @ f8 ISO 100 (depending on focal length) is what you’ll need to stop the motion from blurring and if you are to get the technique right, with the high quality of cameras such as the Canon EOS 5DS R, you might even be able to see the twelve cameras that were left up there by NASA in the 60’s!
How Africa can embrace AI
Currently, no African country is among the top 10 countries expected to benefit most from AI and automation. But, the continent has the potential to catch up with the rest of world if we act fast, says ZOAIB HOOSEN, Microsoft Managing Director.
To play catch up, we must take advantage of our best and most powerful resource – our human capital. According to a report by the World Economic Forum (WEF), more than 60 percent of the population in sub-Saharan Africa is under the age of 25.
These are the people who are poised to create a future where humans and AI can work together for the good of society. In fact, the most recent WEF Global Shapers survey found that almost 80 percent of youth believe technology like AI is creating jobs rather than destroying them.
Staying ahead of the trends to stay employed
AI developments are expected to impact existing jobs, as AI can replicate certain activities at greater speed and scale. In some areas, AI could learn faster than humans, if not yet as deeply.
According to Gartner, while AI will improve the productivity of many jobs and create millions more new positions, it could impact many others. The simpler and less creative the job, the earlier, a bot for example, could replace it.
It’s important to stay ahead of the trends and find opportunities to expand our knowledge and skills while learning how to work more closely and symbiotically with technology.
Another global study by Accenture, found that the adoption of AI will create several new job categories requiring important and yet surprising skills. These include trainers, who are tasked with teaching AI systems how to perform; explainers, who bridge the gap between technologist and business leader; and sustainers, who ensure that AI systems are operating as designed.
It’s clear that successfully integrating human intelligence with AI, so they co-exist in a two-way learning relationship, will become more critical than ever.
Combining STEM with the arts
Young people have a leg up on those already in the working world because they can easily develop the necessary skills for these new roles. It’s therefore essential that our education system constantly evolves to equip youth with the right skills and way of thinking to be successful in jobs that may not even exist yet.
As the division of tasks between man and machine changes, we must re-evaluate the type of knowledge and skills imparted to future generations.
For example, technical skills will be required to design and implement AI systems, but interpersonal skills, creativity and emotional intelligence will also become crucial in giving humans an advantage over machines.
“At one level, AI will require that even more people specialise in digital skills and data science. But skilling-up for an AI-powered world involves more than science, technology, engineering and math. As computers behave more like humans, the social sciences and humanities will become even more important. Languages, art, history, economics, ethics, philosophy, psychology and human development courses can teach critical, philosophical and ethics-based skills that will be instrumental in the development and management of AI solutions.” This is according to Microsoft president, Brad Smith, and EVP of AI and research, Harry Shum, who recently authored the book “The Future Computed”, which primarily deals with AI and its role in society.
Interestingly, institutions like Stanford University are already implementing this forward-thinking approach. The university offers a programme called CS+X, which integrates its computer science degree with humanities degrees, resulting in a Bachelor of Arts and Science qualification.
Revisiting laws and regulation
For this type of evolution to happen, the onus is on policy makers to revisit current laws and even bring in new regulations. Policy makers need to identify the groups most at risk of losing their jobs and create strategies to reintegrate them into the economy.
Simultaneously, though AI could be hugely beneficial in areas such as curbing poor access to healthcare and improving diagnoses for example, physicians may avoid using this technology for fear of malpractice. To avoid this, we need regulation that closes the gap between the pace of technological change and that of regulatory response. It will also become essential to develop a code of ethics for this new ecosystem.
Preparing for the future
With the recent convergence of a transformative set of technologies, economies are entering a period in which AI has the potential overcome physical limitations and open up new sources of value and growth.
To avoid missing out on this opportunity, policy makers and business leaders must prepare for, and work toward, a future with AI. We must do so not with the idea that AI is simply another productivity enhancer. Rather, we must see AI as the tool that can transform our thinking about how growth is created.
It comes down to a choice of our people and economies being part of the technological disruption, or being left behind.