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When man integrates with machine



We may be seeing the next stage of human evolution, writes HAMILTON RATSHEFOLA, head of IBM Southern Africa

We have been acclimatised to the concept of artificial intelligence (AI) and heard the hype about the 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR).  Now prepare for the next stage – whenadvanced AI meets 4IR to enable the always smart, always learning, ubiquitous computing of the future.

Combining Internet of Things (IoT) and a hyper-connected high-speed global network, 4IR is already changing business models. And analysts expect the pace of 4IR-driven change to accelerate. By fully integrating now-mature AI into the mix, the world will gain computing that impacts every facet of business, work and daily life, and crucially – keeps getting better at it.

While IBM pioneered AI in the form of Watson several years ago, many industries were slow to adopt, because they simply were not sure where and how to apply these novel technologies, and whether they would deliver ROI. In fact, a 2018 study by MIT Sloan Management Review and Boston Consulting Group found just under 20 percent of companies could be considered pioneers in AI adoption.

But IBM researchers expect AI adoption to pick up in enterprise this year, beginning in areas such as customer service. AI-enabled chatbots are now taking over some of the resource-intensive work of dealing with customer queries, and doing such a good job of it that up to 69 percent of consumers now prefer to deal with chatbots for quick communications with brands.

Businesses in Africa are also embracing AI in financial services, for predictive maintenance, to support cyber security and for market analysis and research. But the AI spike is just beginning. In a hyper-connected environment where everyone and everything is connected, AI’s true potential will begin to be realised. Everyone and everything will transmit vast amounts of big data that was never before available for analysis and forecast. The world will know where and how everyone and everything interacted, what factors impacted on their movements and behaviours, and therefore – how to simplify and improve these processes and what they are likely to do next. With advanced AI in the mix, systems will automatically make the improvements necessary for better health and safety, productivity and outcomes. It has the potential to dramatically improve food production, revolutionise health care, end manual labour and make life safer, cleaner and better for everyone.  4IR underpinned by advanced AI is set to change the way people exist so profoundly that it might be seen as the next phase of evolution – where man and machine merge.

Revolutionary change in just 5 years

4IR is already underway: IBM Research’s annual “5 in 5” technology predictions assess the very real AI-enabled innovations emerging across the world, and their potential to impact all facets of life. Each year, we showcase some of the biggest breakthroughs coming out of IBM Research’s global labs – 5 technologies that we believe will fundamentally reshape business and society in the next five years. 5 in 5 reveals that within the next 5 years, radical recycling processes will transform plastic waste disposal and recycling, AI sensors will detect pathogens in food, cheap monitors will allow for food safety tracking across the supply chain, and digital twinning will support better agricultural yields at lower cost.

4IR underpinned by cloud

4IR, incorporating Blockchain and powered by cloud and edge computing, are now transforming the way we live and work in much the same way that the advent of the Internet, PCs and mobile phones did in previous decades. Gartner states that Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain and Quantum Computing are the top strategic technology trends for 2019, which will have an impact and transform industries through 2023.  Recognising this, organisations are expected to change their cloud strategy focus from the low-end infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) opportunities to focus instead on extracting valuable data from their business processes; integrating data across the enterprise and with external data sets; and applying AI, blockchain and analytics technologies to that data. 

In future, as people and objects become increasingly connected, we will see organisations across all sectors exploring new ways to harness these connections and the resulting data, to create goods, services, workplaces and environments that were once only the realm of science fiction. We are understanding that businesses developing and wanting to use these powerful new technologies have an obligation to guide those innovations in ways people can trust and that foster broad economic prosperity. Therefore, the 4IR has encompasses the power to transform many spheres of our daily lives, unleash new journeys of discovery and push new boundaries in Africa and across the world.

* Hamilton Ratshefola is country general manager of IBM Southern Africa


Tech promotes connections across groups in emerging markets

Digital technology users say they more regularly interact with people from diverse backgrounds



Smartphone users – especially those who use social media – say they are more regularly exposed to people who have different backgrounds. They are also more connected with friends they don’t see in person, a Pew Research Center survey of adults in 11 emerging economies finds.

South Africa, included in the study, has among the most consistent levels of connection across age groups and education levels and in terms of cross-cultural connections. This suggests both that smartphones have had a greater democratisation impact in South Africa, but also that the country is more geared to diversity than most others. Of 11 countries surveyed, it has the second-lowest spread between those using smartphones and those not using them in terms of exposure to other religious groups.

Across every country surveyed, those who use smartphones are more likely than those who use less sophisticated phones or no phones at all to regularly interact with people from different religious groups. In most countries, people with smartphones also tend to be more likely to interact regularly with people from different political parties, income levels and racial or ethnic backgrounds. 

The Center’s new report is the third in a series exploring digital connectivity among populations in emerging economies based on nationally representative surveys of adults in Colombia, India, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Mexico, the Philippines, Tunisia, South Africa, Venezuela and Vietnam. Earlier reports examined attitudes toward misinformation and mobile technology’s social impact

The survey finds that smartphone and social media use are intertwined: A median of 91% of smartphone users in these countries also use social media or messaging apps, while a median of 81% of social media users say they own or share a smartphone. And, as with smartphone users, social media and messaging app users stand apart from non-users in how often they interact with people who are different from them. For example, 52% of Mexican social media users say they regularly interact with people of a different income level, compared with 28% of non-users. 

These results do not show with certainty that smartphones or social media are the cause of people feeling like they have more diverse networks. For example, those who have resources to buy and maintain a smartphone are likely to differ in many key ways from those who don’t, and it could be that some combination of those differences drives this phenomenon. Still, statistical modelling indicates that smartphone and social media use are independent predictors of greater social network diversity when other factors such as age, education and sex are held constant. 

Other key findings in the report include: 

  • Mobile phones and social media are broadening people’s social networks. More than half in most countries say they see in person only about half or fewer of the people they call or text. Mobile phones are also allowing many to stay in touch with people who live far away: A median of 93% of mobile phone users across the 11 countries surveyed say their phones have mostly helped them keep in touch with those who are far-flung. When it comes to social media, large shares report relationships with “friends” online who are distinct from those they see in person. A median of 46% of Facebook users across the 11 countries report seeing few or none of their Facebook friends in person regularly, compared with a median of 31% of Facebook users who often see most or all of their Facebook friends in person. 
  • Social activities and information seeking on subjects like health and education top the list of mobile activities. The survey asked mobile phone users about 10 different activities they might do on their mobile phones – activities that are social, information-seeking or commercial in nature. Among the most commonly reported activities are casual, social activities. For example, a median of 82% of mobile phone users in the 11 countries surveyed say they used their phone over the past year to send text messages and a median of 69% of users say they took pictures or videos. Many mobile phone users are also using their phones to find new information. For example, a median of 61% of mobile phone users say they used their phones over the past year to look up information about health and medicine for themselves or their families. This is more than the proportion that reports using their phones to get news and information about politics (median of 47%) or to look up information about government services (37%). Additionally, around half or more of mobile phone users in nearly all countries report having used their phones over the past 12 months to learn something important for work or school. 
  • Digital divides emerge in the new mobile-social environment. People with smartphones and social media – as well as younger people, those with higher levels of education, and men – are in some ways reaping more benefits than others, potentially contributing to digital divides. 
    • People with smartphones are much more likely to engage in activities on their phones than people with less sophisticated devices – even if the activity itself is quite simple. For example, people with smartphones are more likely than those with feature or basic phones to send text messages in each of the 11 countries surveyed, even though the activity is technically feasible from all mobile phones. Those who have smartphones are also much more likely to look up information for their households, including about health and government services. 
    •  There are also major differences in mobile usage by age and education level in how their devices are – or are not – broadening their horizons. Younger people are more likely to use their phones for nearly all activities asked about, whether those activities are social, information-seeking or commercial. Phone users with higher levels of education are also more likely to do most activities on their phones and to interact with those who are different from them regularly than those with lower levels of education. 
    •  Gender, too, plays a role in what people do with their devices and how they are exposed to different people and information. Men are more likely than women to say they encounter people who are different from them, whether in terms of race, politics, religion or income. And men tend to be more likely to look up information about government services and to obtain political news and information. 

These findings are drawn from a Pew Research Center survey conducted among 28,122 adults in 11 countries from Sept. 7 to Dec. 7, 2018. In addition to the survey, the Center conducted focus groups with participants in Kenya, Mexico, the Philippines and Tunisia in March 2018, and their comments are included throughout the report. 

Read the full report at

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Nokia to be first with Android 10



Nokia is likely to be the first smartphone brand to roll out Android 10, after its manufacturer, HMD Global, announced that the Android 10 software upgrade would start in the fourth quarter of 2019.

Previously named Android Q, it was given the number after Google announced it was ditching sweet and dessert names due to confusion in different languages. Android 10 is due for release at the end of the year.

Juho Sarvikas, chief product officer of HMD Global said: “With a proven track record in delivering software updates fast, Nokia smartphones were the first whole portfolio to benefit from a 2-letter upgrade from Android Nougat to Android Oreo and then Android Pie. We were the fastest manufacturer to upgrade from Android Oreo to Android Pie across the range. 

“With today’s roll out plan we look set to do it even faster for Android Pie to Android 10 upgrades. We are the only manufacturer 100% committed to having the latest Android across the entire portfolio.”

HMD Global has given a guarantee that Nokia smartphone owners benefit from two years of OS upgrades and 3 years of security updates.

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