Continental is presenting its building blocks on the road to automated driving at the IAA 2015 in Frankfurt, as part of its ‘Vision Zero’ concept, which aims to eliminate traffic accidents.
“We are working on being able to offer affordable mobility, with three key aspects: zero road traffic accidents, clean air, and intelligent vehicles with added convenience,” explained Dr. Elmar Degenhart, chairman of the Continental Executive Board, on the occasion of the International Motor Show. Continental is one of the leading pioneers of connected and automated driving.
“Our work makes us pioneers when it comes to fully automated driving. The technology for this is getting closer and closer to being ready for use on the road. This is why we welcome the establishment of digital test areas, such as those approved or planned in various German states.
“It is now high time for lawmakers to lay the legislative groundwork for the everyday use of automated driving,” urged Degenhart. “After all, an important step when it comes to highly automated driving – on freeways, for example – is to establish a legal framework so that drivers no longer have to constantly monitor the situation on the road.”
Work is also underway at Continental on several autonomous – and thus driverless – driving features, particularly with a view to implementing convenient parking systems. The technology corporation will be showcasing its extremely practical Surround View camera system for this at the IAA.
The six challenges of automated driving
“We are developing the necessary components and systems for automated driving worldwide – in the USA as well as in Japan, China, and Germany. Our engineers are tackling six key challenges: sensor technology, cluster connectivity, human-machine dialogue, system architecture, reliability, and the acceptance of automated driving,” said Degenhart, describing the company’s automated driving work packages.
Sensor technology: Zero accidents are no longer a utopia. Advanced driver assistance systems with sensors can record the area around the vehicle just as well as humans, if not better. Rear-view mirrors can be replaced by camera systems, which not only increase safety, but also reduce CO2 emissions from cars and commercial vehicles. For the sensor fusion, and ultimately for evaluating the sensor data, Continental is researching the use of artificial intelligence. On the theme of “safety through learning,” Continental has launched a research project with the Technical University of Darmstadt called PRORETA 4, which explores self-learning systems and artificial intelligence.
“In the future, we will be installing sensors in the tyres, which will enable the car to detect the condition of the road’s surface. “Tyres will therefore become a key part of our sensor network in the car,” added Degenhart. “Continental is also working on a unique anticipatory driving system that will be able to learn.”
Cluster connectivity: The Internet will become the car’s sixth sense. Continental is working on a powerful backend that will provide highly accurate traffic information. The basis for this will be the sensor data shared by road users coupled with the traffic backend computer.
Sharing data increases the sensors’ range and enables the vehicle to “see around corners.”
Dialogue between humans and machine: What is the strategy if the vehicle arrives at an exit to a freeway in fully automated mode and the driver is supposed to take control again? In its interactive 3D cinema, Continental will be unveiling a cockpit for the interaction between vehicle and driver – an important answer to the question of control.
System architecture: Future system architectures for automated driving will have to securely manage the huge amount of data that needs to be processed in the car. One gigabyte of sensor data per minute has to be processed in real time. Increasing sensor output and the resultant increase in the volume of data, requires a powerful and reliable electronics architecture.
Reliability: At present,advanced driver assistance systems function as a fall-back for the driver. With automated driving, in the event of a malfunction, the vehicle must be able to continue safely on its way or to come to a controlled, safe stop. Specially configured brake systems are already being tested in fleets. Protection against attempts at manipulation must also be considered. Processes that will recognize such attempts and protect the vehicle systems are currently in development.
Acceptance: As Continental sees it, automated driving will be accepted if people trust the technology. Trust evolves from the intelligent dialogue between the driver and the vehicle. The developers of today’s advanced driver assistance and driver information systems are taking this into account and laying the groundwork for the acceptance of tomorrow’s solutions.
Connected driving: Dynamic electronic horizon increases efficiency and convenience
Connected cars can use their sensors to collect a large amount of information on changing events – such as traffic jams, accidents, traffic lights, warning signs, and road conditions – and share this with other road users via the Internet.
Employing a “cluster” of interconnected vehicles and collating and analysing the data they have collected in the traffic backend computer, creates an up-to-date, extremely accurate image of the traffic network and traffic flow. This information can then be used by other vehicles and their advanced driver assistance systems or other features.
“The more a vehicle knows about the route ahead, the better it can adapt and configure its features accordingly. Being connected means it can learn to look ahead,” said Degenhart. Continental will be presenting an example of this: its eHorizon.
A static version of eHorizon has been used in commercial vehicles since 2012. In this application, it uses pre-programmed information on the route’s elevation profile to adjust its transmission and drive systems, thus saving over 1 500 litres of fuel per truck a year.
Dynamic eHorizon will enable a vehicle to keep learning during the journey and therefore use the range of its sensors to see what’s around the next corner. This also means that Continental’s system does not need to store anywhere near as much information as a navigation system.
Furthermore, dynamic eHorizon can also be connected to smart, mobile communication devices, so that those travelling in the vehicle can stay connected to their digital worlds and to future digital services.
The popular hybrid: a milestone on the road to more efficiency and cleaner air
Increased efficiency is another key aspect of the development activities at Continental. To meet the ever-stricter, extremely ambitious emissions standards, a mild hybrid system with 48-volt on-board power supply will become vital. “It has what it takes to become a popular hybrid because it uses 20 percent less fuel, is relatively affordable and can be used in all vehicle classes,” says Degenhart, highlighting its benefits. Continental will begin production of the system in Europe, Asia, and the USA in 2016.
“Reducing weight and lowering consumption are the ongoing challenges our whole company is tackling to make mobility more efficient. Our turbochargers lower CO2 emissions of new vehicles by up to seven percent, and together with direct fuel injection by as much as 13 percent,” explained Degenhart.
Turbocharger hose lines and transmission crossbeams are becoming increasingly lighter thanks to the use of high-performance plastics.
“Due to the limited output of current battery technology, all-electric vehicles will remain a niche product for the next few years,” he added.
How to predict the future
Forecasting the future is about people, not technology, ARTHUR GOLDSTUCK discovers on a visit to the HP Innovation Lab in Barcelona
When HP chief technology officer Shane Wall talks about the world three decades from now, the trends to steers clear of technology. That’s startling, given that he is also global head of HP Labs, the advanced research group within the world’s leading PC and printer manufacturer.
The Labs play host to numerous futuristic technologies, from 3D printing to virtual reality, so one would expect its vision of the future to be all about the gadget. Instead, it’s all about the people who will use the gadgets of the future.
“When we think long term, we try to look 15-20, even 30 years into the future,” he said during the HP Innovation Summit at the HP Innovation Lab outside Barcelona, Spain, last week. “The way we do it is that we don’t start with technology. In HP Labs we invent all manner of incredible things in basic areas like biology, physics, and 3D printing. Those give us an idea, but we’re careful not to extrapolate those into the future, because by extrapolating you miss disruption.
“Instead, we look at people. We’ve done this for a number of years, looking every year at what’s accelerating, what’s gone slower, what’s new. We call these megatrends, that look at humanity rather than technology.
“In 2019 we stood back and took a different look at humanity. Everyone does market segmentation, analysing who the customer is and how they buy things. Instead, we looked at economic segmentation, we looked at where the money is moving in the next 30 years. We conducted numerous interviews with economists.”
The key megatrends identified by HP for the next three decades revolve around rapid urbanisation, changing demographics, hyper-globalisation, and accelerated innovation.
“We’re changing where we live,” said Wall. “People are moving out of rural areas and densifying cities. Cities themselves are getting bigger. In 1991, there were 10 megacities – defined as urban areas with 10-million people or more. By 2013, there were 41, by 2030, there will be over 60. Those cities are changing the very nature of everything we do, from the nature of work to the manner of how we do product development.”
The challenge of how to get goods into cities and waste out of them, he said, will result in a much greater focus on sustainability and energy management.
“That is going to change our go-to-market approach. Currently, we focus on countries as markets. Now we are seeing how important cities are becoming. In Nigeria, you may care about all of humanity, but for sales, you care about Lagos. In China, by 2035 any tier 3 city’s gross domestic product will pass that of the entire country of Sweden.”
The very nature of the population is changing, said Wall. The impact of the post-Word War 2 population boom, resulting in the American concept of “baby boomers”, has now evolved into the “silver spenders”, who are living longer thanks to healthcare advances. They expect technology to address solutions to their toughest problems.
“On the other end of the spectrum, we are seeing a whole new generation, Gen Z, a generation like we’ve never seen, very focused on experiences and values, less focused on purchasing. They are also driving a change in our behaviour as businesses in terms of go-to-market. Understanding them deeply shapes the very nature of the enterprise.”
Wall points out that, because we live in a world that is hyper-connected, we expect things to move at speed of light, while at the same time we expect it to be local. This has given rise to the concept of “glocalisation”.
“It is the expectation that things be both global and local, thanks to connectivity and mobile phones. Startups in emerging markets growing at 20% a year. It will be not only ideas that will move at this speed, but in the near future physical goods will also move at that speed.”
Finally, technology must, by its very nature, play a key role.
“Tech itself is moving faster; it’s not just a perception. It started with Moore’s Law and the doubling of capacity on a transistor every two years. That happened at a systems level, and eventually, it brought artificial intelligence and machine learning into being. The algorithms were invented 10-20-30 years ago, but because of scale we have seen that only now are they becoming usable.”
What does this mean for consumers and businesses? On the one hand, it represents massive opportunity. On the other, even greater challenges.
“Over the next 30 years we will see incredible economic expansion, where the number of haves with the ability to spend on products we sell is going to grow at an incredible rate. The number of have-nots will shrink. But in order to meet that economic growth, we will see a 16% shortage in skilled labour, which means we must drive higher levels of automation to reach that growth.”
A big question is: What can prevent it from happening? The answer is highly relevant to South Africa.
“The challenges lie in basic infrastructure, like roads, buildings, and airports, but one thing at the root of it all is energy. When we look into the future, energy will become the critical piece: how well, how fast, we can build it out to meet those needs. In many economies, it is not being built out in a sustainable way. We need to change the equation.”
One of the solutions lies in 3D printing.
“Products can be designed digitally anywhere, and you can transmit the design on a digital supply chain, perhaps using blockchain and security tech, to cities where they are printed or manufactured on demand using 3D printers. That’s digital manufacturing and it’s already happening in some places today.
“Imagine you go to Amazon, you find a product, you edit it, personalise it, make it yours, and at the push of a button it is printed at a local manufacturing facility and shows up at your door two days later. It’s estimated that we can save 25% of our energy using digital instead of traditional manufacturing. Manufacturing itself takes one-third of energy use the in the world, so it will have a big impact on the world of the future.”
Arthur Goldstuck is founder of World Wide Worx and editor-in-chief of Gadget.co.za. Follow him on Twitter and Instagram on @art2gee
Google launches open-source cloud for enterprises
Vendor lock-in is a thing of the past for Google Cloud users, writes BRYAN TURNER.
A new way for enterprises to use cloud, that prevents lock-in, has been unveiled by Google at its Cloud Next event in San Francisco.
“Cloud Next is held in San Francisco, London, and Tokyo to cater for the various markets,” said Mich Atagana, head of communications for Google Africa. “The event aims to bring together cloud developers to showcase the latest cloud. You can think of it as the Google IO event for executives.”
At a round table, a team of Googlers broke it down for those of us who aren’t cloud developers.
“There’s a lot of technicality in this event, and a lot of the magic could be lost on those who aren’t developers,” said Atagana. “That’s why we’ve assembled our Cloud team to demystify the technicality.”
Shai Morgan, head of Google Cloud Sub Saharan Africa, said: “Cloud Next started four years ago. The first one hosted 3600 attendees, while this year we hosted about 30,000. This shows the way Google moves across the industry and how we address businesses. We’ve seen large growth in our partner ecosystem. It used to be very niche players, and now it’s big players like Accenture and Deloitte using Google Cloud.”
Daniel Acton, regional tech lead for Cloud at Google, said: “We had a new CEO come in [for Google Cloud] and he said it’s all fair and well to talk about the benefits of the cloud, but it’s not always attainable for business.”
This is where Google comes in. It launched new products to assist businesses in customising the cloud, the transition to cloud platforms, and how much must remain on-premise.
First up is Anthos, a management system for hybrid environments.
Acton said: “Anthos addresses the journey to the cloud. Businesses know that this journey doesn’t happen at the snap of the fingers. Executives have to make carefully calculated decisions on how to get there. There’s also lots of friction to get to the cloud, with a big factor being cloud vendor lock-in.”
“One way to move a business to the cloud is through a ‘lift and shift’, which is simply moving all the components of the business off-premise and on the cloud. This isn’t always what a business needs. Anthos deals with “infrastructure modernisation”, which is how we go from what we got to what we need. That’s because not everything should be in the cloud.
“We give businesses that option for hybrid infrastructure. Anthos exists to help customers on their journey to the cloud. We realise this is a multi-cloud environment and provide our customers on-premise, a bridge, and computation on the cloud, for example.”
Morgan expanded on this and said: “It’s a bridge to the cloud and a very well managed bridge at that. For an enterprise customer, it’s complicated to move assets, manage skillsets, all while thinking about lock-in to a cloud vendor. Open source in an enterprise environment prevents lock-in. We work very closely with existing vendors, walking with them in their cloud journey but they can leave at any time.
“Anthos can run on Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Microsoft Azure. That’s the beauty of Open Source, no lock-in. Containerising is a method that’s popular in the cloud developer environment but moving these containers across these environments is not trivial currently. Anthos allows this to happen.”
This brings the second major feature: serverless computing.
Containers and serverless computing go hand-in-hand. Acton explained that containers are like pre-setup computers, where a developer doesn’t have to spend time setting up a virtual environment and can focus on writing code, which ultimately delivers business value. He compared the proliferation of containers to Java, with the “write once, run anyway” phrase.
Serverless computing is split into many levels. At a low level, the Google App Engine allows developers to write code, and it takes care of hosting and handling the load. This is similar to the AWS Lambda service.
The enterprise nature of Google Cloud is not exclusive to large enterprises.
“We address very small businesses as we treat our consumers,” said Morgan “They most likely use Gmail, Drive, Docs, and Calendar because those products are free and very easy to handle. Setting up an enterprise cloud environment is quite complicated.
“If one invests enough time and energy, one can start a business that adds value and has its computing backed by Google Cloud.”