The Check Point research team recently uncovered a new Android malware campaign on Google Play, which it calls: Viking Horde. The malware campaign is being used for fraud, DDoS attacks and to send spam.
Viking Horde conducts ad fraud, but can also be used for other attack purposes such as DDoS attacks, spam messages, and more. At least five instances of Viking Horde managed to bypass Google Play malware scans so far.
Check Point notified Google about the malware on 5 May 2016.
On all devices — rooted or not — Viking Horde creates a botnet that uses proxied IP addresses to disguise ad clicks, generating revenue for the attacker. A botnet is a group of devices controlled by hackers without the knowledge of their owners. The bots are used for various reasons based on the distributed computing capabilities of all the devices. The larger the botnet, the greater its capabilities.
On rooted devices, Viking Horde delivers additional malware payloads that can execute any code remotely, potentially compromising the security of data on the device. It also takes advantage of root access privileges to make itself difficult or even impossible to remove manually.
Meet the Horde
The most widely-downloaded instance of Viking Horde is the app: Viking Jump, which was uploaded to Google Play on 15 April 2016, and has achieved 50,000 – 100,000 downloads. In some local markets, Viking Jump is a Google Play top free app.
The oldest instance is Wi-Fi Plus, which was uploaded to Google Play on 29 March 2016. Other instances include the apps Memory Booster, Parrot Copter, and Simple 2048. All Viking Horde-infected apps have a relatively low reputation which the research team speculates may be because users have noticed the odd behaviour, such as asking for root permissions.
The botnet created by the attackers spread worldwide to users from various targeted countries. The Check Point research team collected data on the distribution of victims from one of the many Command & Control servers (C&C’s) used by attackers, which is illustrated below:
How Viking Horde Works
From its research of Viking Horde’s code and the C&C servers used in the attack, our research team can illustrate the malware process flow.
1. The malware is first installed from Google Play. While the app initiates the game, it installs several components, outside of the application’s directory. The components are randomly named with pseudo-system words from a preset list, such as core.bin, clib.so, android.bin and update.bin. They are installed on the SD card if the device is not rooted, and to root/data if it is. One of these files is used to exchange information between the malware’s components. A second file contains the list of the generated names of the components, to make them available to all components.
2. The malware then checks whether the device is rooted:
- If the device is rooted, the malware initiates two additional components:
app_exec. Implements communication protocol with the server.
app_exec_watch_dog Binary implements update and persistency mechanism. Watchdog monitors app_exec process and restarts it if needed.
- If the device is not rooted, the malware loads app_exec file as a shared library and calls its functions by JNI – Java Native Interface, which allows Java code run native binaries
In both scenarios, once app_exec application is installed, it establishes a TCP connection with the C&C server and starts the communication. The communication consists of the following commands:
- Ping. Every 10 seconds application sends 5 bytes to the server. The server responds with the same 5 bytes.
- Update of device information: Sends to server charge battery, type of connection and phone number.
- The next step is to accomplish the main malicious functionality by creating an anonymous proxy connection. The C&C sends a “create_proxy” command with two IP addresses and ports as parameters. These IP addresses are used to open two sockets one for a remote server (which is a client of the botnet exploiting the anonymous proxy) and the other for the remote target. Then it reads the data received from the first socket and channels it to the target host. Using this technique, the malware developer (or someone using this botnet as “malware as a service”) can hide his IP behind the infected device’s IP.
It is important to understand that even if the device is not rooted, Viking Horde turns the device into a proxy capable of sending and receiving information per the attacker’s commands. Below is an example of an infected device as seen from an attacker’s C&C. The remoteIP is the proxy’s IP, and the socksIP is the C&C server’s IP. The C&C contains some information about the device including its OS version, battery status, and GPS coordinates. In this case, the device is located in the US on T-Mobile.
The botnet is controlled by many C&C servers, each managing a few hundred devices. The malware’s primary objective is to hijack a device and then use it to simulate clicks on advertisements in websites to accumulate profit. The malware needs this proxy to bypass ad-nets’ anti-fraud mechanisms by using distributed IPs.
Some user reviews of the app also claim it sends premium SMS messages, as seen in the screen capture below. This botnet could be used for various malicious purposes, such as DDoS attacks, spamming and delivering malware.
Vikings are a Persistent Horde
The malware uses several techniques to remain on the device. First, Viking Horde installs several components with system-related names, so that they are hard to locate and uninstall.
If the device is rooted, two more mechanisms are set in place:
The app_exec component monitors the main application’s existence. If the user uninstalled the main application, app_exec decrypts a component called com.android.security and silently installs it. This component will be hidden, and run after boot. This component is a copy of itself and has the same capabilities.
The watchdog component installs the app_exec component updates. If app_exec is removed, the watchdog will reinstall it from the update folder.
Apparently, some users even noticed this activity:
Bonus component for rooted devices
Perhaps the most dangerous functionality is the update mechanism. The update mechanism is split between app_exec and watchdog components. app_exec downloads the new binary from the server and stores it to /data directory with the app_exec_update name.
Watchdog periodically checks if an update file exists and replaces app_exec with this file. This means that upon the server’s command, Viking Horde downloads a new binary. The watchdog component will replace the application with it. This allows downloading and executing any remote code on the device.
Legion gets a pro makeover
Lenovo’s latest Legion gaming laptop, the Y530, pulls out all the stops to deliver a sleek looking computer at a lower price point, writes BRYAN TURNER
Gaming laptops have become synonymous with thick bodies, loud fans, and rainbow lights. Lenovo’s latest gaming laptop is here to change that.
The unit we reviewed housed an Intel Core i7-8750H, with an Nvidia GeForce GTX 1060 GPU. It featured dual storage, one bay fitted with a Samsung 256GB NVMe SSD and the other with a 1TB HDD.
The latest addition to the Legion lineup has become far more professional-looking, compared to the previous generation Y520. This trend is becoming more prevalent in the gaming laptop market and appeals to those who want to use a single device for work and play. Instead of sporting flashy colours, Lenovo has opted for an all-black computer body and a monochromatic, white light scheme.
The laptop features an all-metal body with sharp edges and comes in at just under 24mm thick. Lenovo opted to make the Y530’s screen lid a little shorter than the bottom half of the laptop, which allowed for more goodies to be packed in the unit while still keeping it thin. The lid of the laptop features Legion branding that’s subtly engraved in the metal and aligned to the side. It also features a white light in the O of Legion that glows when the computer is in use.
The extra bit of the laptop body facilitates better cooling. Lenovo has upgraded its Legion fan system from the previous generation. For passive cooling, a type of cooling that relies on the body’s build instead of the fans, it handles regular office use without starting up the fans. A gaming laptop with good passive cooling is rare to find and Lenovo has shown that it can be achieved with a good build.
The internal fans start when gaming, as one would expect. They are about as loud as other gaming laptops, but this won’t be a problem for gamers who use headsets.
Click here to read about the screen quality, and how it performs in-game.
Serious about security? Time to talk ISO 20000
By EDWARD CARBUTT, executive director at Marval Africa
The looming Protection of Personal Information (PoPI) Act in South Africa and the introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the European Union (EU) have brought information security to the fore for many organisations. This in addition to the ISO 27001 standard that needs to be adhered to in order to assist the protection of information has caused organisations to scramble and ensure their information security measures are in line with regulatory requirements.
However, few businesses know or realise that if they are already ISO 20000 certified and follow Information Technology Infrastructure Library’s (ITIL) best practices they are effectively positioning themselves with other regulatory standards such as ISO 27001. In doing so, organisations are able to decrease the effort and time taken to adhere to the policies of this security standard.
ISO 20000, ITSM and ITIL – Where does ISO 27001 fit in?
ISO 20000 is the international standard for IT service management (ITSM) and reflects a business’s ability to adhere to best practice guidelines contained within the ITIL frameworks.
ISO 20000 is process-based, it tackles many of the same topics as ISO 27001, such as incident management, problem management, change control and risk management. It’s therefore clear that if security forms part of ITSM’s outcomes, it should already be taken care of… So, why aren’t more businesses looking towards ISO 20000 to assist them in becoming ISO 27001 compliant?
The link to information security compliance
Information security management is a process that runs across the ITIL service life cycle interacting with all other processes in the framework. It is one of the key aspects of the ‘warranty of the service’, managed within the Service Level Agreement (SLA). The focus is ensuring that the quality of services produces the desired business value.
So, how are these standards different?
Even though ISO 20000 and ISO 27001 have many similarities and elements in common, there are still many differences. Organisations should take cognisance that ISO 20000 considers risk as one of the building elements of ITSM, but the standard is still service-based. Conversely, ISO 27001 is completely risk management-based and has risk management at its foundation whereas ISO 20000 encompasses much more
Why ISO 20000?
Organisations should ask themselves how they will derive value from ISO 20000. In Short, the ISO 20000 certification gives ITIL ‘teeth’. ITIL is not prescriptive, it is difficult to maintain momentum without adequate governance controls, however – ISO 20000 is. ITIL does not insist on continual service improvement – ISO 20000 does. In addition, ITIL does not insist on evidence to prove quality and progress – ISO 20000 does. ITIL is not being demanded by business – governance controls, auditability & agility are. This certification verifies an organisation’s ability to deliver ITSM within ITIL standards.
Ensuring ISO 20000 compliance provides peace of mind and shortens the journey to achieving other certifications, such as ISO 27001 compliance.