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Think like a hacker

Ethical hackers play a key role in keeping a company secure.

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Relevant cybersecurity isn’t perpetuated exclusively through investment and systems; it is reliant on people and their understanding of the cyber threat. 

A leading ethical technology hacker in Europe, Jamie Woodruff, gained access to a well-known financial institution by simply posing as a pizza delivery man. He was quoted as saying that it is the mistakes that people make that are the true threat to the business. That said, it is people like Woodruff who can provide the organisation with the insight required to pre-empt attacks, find hidden loopholes and educate employees. 

These ethical hackers know how to play the game of cybersecurity thrones. They understand the methodologies and the mindsets of those who make a living from penetrating business defences unlawfully and use this understanding to reshape security infrastructure and investment.

“The role of the ethical hacker has evolved considerably over the past few years,” says Karien Bornheim, CEO of Footprint Africa Business Solutions (FABS). “In the past, they would be hired by organisations to ensure that their security was capable of withstanding a concerted attack and, in some cases, find out if they had already been breached. Many organisations only discover that they’ve had a breach years after it has taken place. Today, the ethical hacker has added to their arsenal – their skills have evolved and so have the methods they use. Not only are they penetrating the front lines of defence, they are also launching attacks from the inside of the organisation.”

There has been a subtle shift from the slide in and out pen testing of the past when ethical hackers would attack organisations over a period of a few days or weeks. Now, many undertake long-term undercover assignments that embed them into the company. These are the ethical hackers that become part of the culture so they can identify the insider threats that are affecting the organisation, and even identify the source of ongoing security challenges. Many ethical hacker training courses specialise in undercover training into very specific technology skill sets that allow them to find the bigger threats to the organisation, particularly those perpetrated by employees.

The insider threat is a very real problem. According to CA’s Insider Threat 2018 Report, 90% of organisations feel that they are vulnerable to an insider attack, 53% have had confirmed insider attacks, and 27% have seen an increase in frequency. This has sparked significant internal investment into insider threat programmes that focus on deterrence, forensics and user behaviour monitoring.

“Ethical hackers are capable of immersing themselves into the culture of the business. They use this to detect behaviour that could potentially indicate if someone is an insider threat,” says Bornheim. “Their skills allow them to find digital proof of misdeeds and rapidly detect certain system issues or behaviours. Those who take on these roles can spend months or even years at an organisation protecting it both from within and without.”

That said, in spite of their security expertise and experience, many organisations remain reluctant to hire external ethical hackers and grant them access to their information. It’s an understandable concern. Many ethical hackers have moved from the so-called black hat (criminal) side of hacking to the white hat (legal) side and bring with them a suitcase of smart skills that few companies want to see thrown at their cybersecurity walls. However, this discomfort is the precise reason why the business should be paying attention and the bill.

“These individuals do command high salaries but what they offer the organisation in terms of reputational and cost-saving benefits, cannot be understated,” says Bornheim. “Should they discover a bug, a loophole, an existing piece of dangerous code, or any other threat to the company, they can save it millions.”

The average cost to the company, according to IBM’s study – Costs of Data Breaches Increase Expenses for Businesses, is around $US3.86 million for a data breach.  This cost has risen since 2016 by 6.4% and will likely increase again over the next 12-24 months. Any company facing that reckoning at the end of a cybersecurity hack from a black hat will suddenly see the bill that comes from a certified white hat like a missed opportunity.

“Certified ethical hackers operate under very strict ethical controls,” concludes Bornheim. “They report any issues or information they find and help the organisation to put more stringent or relevant controls in place. The ethical hacker is ultimately a weapon, one that can be safely wielded by the untrained to defend the organisation against future attacks, to rebuild systems and security platforms, and to uncover insider threats. Their role is as critical to the development of a robust cybersecurity stance as the software, solutions and training that are embedded into the human, machine, server, and system.”

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Tech promotes connections across groups in emerging markets

Digital technology users say they more regularly interact with people from diverse backgrounds

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Smartphone users – especially those who use social media – say they are more regularly exposed to people who have different backgrounds. They are also more connected with friends they don’t see in person, a Pew Research Center survey of adults in 11 emerging economies finds.

South Africa, included in the study, has among the most consistent levels of connection across age groups and education levels and in terms of cross-cultural connections. This suggests both that smartphones have had a greater democratisation impact in South Africa, but also that the country is more geared to diversity than most others. Of 11 countries surveyed, it has the second-lowest spread between those using smartphones and those not using them in terms of exposure to other religious groups.

Across every country surveyed, those who use smartphones are more likely than those who use less sophisticated phones or no phones at all to regularly interact with people from different religious groups. In most countries, people with smartphones also tend to be more likely to interact regularly with people from different political parties, income levels and racial or ethnic backgrounds. 

The Center’s new report is the third in a series exploring digital connectivity among populations in emerging economies based on nationally representative surveys of adults in Colombia, India, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Mexico, the Philippines, Tunisia, South Africa, Venezuela and Vietnam. Earlier reports examined attitudes toward misinformation and mobile technology’s social impact

The survey finds that smartphone and social media use are intertwined: A median of 91% of smartphone users in these countries also use social media or messaging apps, while a median of 81% of social media users say they own or share a smartphone. And, as with smartphone users, social media and messaging app users stand apart from non-users in how often they interact with people who are different from them. For example, 52% of Mexican social media users say they regularly interact with people of a different income level, compared with 28% of non-users. 

These results do not show with certainty that smartphones or social media are the cause of people feeling like they have more diverse networks. For example, those who have resources to buy and maintain a smartphone are likely to differ in many key ways from those who don’t, and it could be that some combination of those differences drives this phenomenon. Still, statistical modelling indicates that smartphone and social media use are independent predictors of greater social network diversity when other factors such as age, education and sex are held constant. 

Other key findings in the report include: 

  • Mobile phones and social media are broadening people’s social networks. More than half in most countries say they see in person only about half or fewer of the people they call or text. Mobile phones are also allowing many to stay in touch with people who live far away: A median of 93% of mobile phone users across the 11 countries surveyed say their phones have mostly helped them keep in touch with those who are far-flung. When it comes to social media, large shares report relationships with “friends” online who are distinct from those they see in person. A median of 46% of Facebook users across the 11 countries report seeing few or none of their Facebook friends in person regularly, compared with a median of 31% of Facebook users who often see most or all of their Facebook friends in person. 
  • Social activities and information seeking on subjects like health and education top the list of mobile activities. The survey asked mobile phone users about 10 different activities they might do on their mobile phones – activities that are social, information-seeking or commercial in nature. Among the most commonly reported activities are casual, social activities. For example, a median of 82% of mobile phone users in the 11 countries surveyed say they used their phone over the past year to send text messages and a median of 69% of users say they took pictures or videos. Many mobile phone users are also using their phones to find new information. For example, a median of 61% of mobile phone users say they used their phones over the past year to look up information about health and medicine for themselves or their families. This is more than the proportion that reports using their phones to get news and information about politics (median of 47%) or to look up information about government services (37%). Additionally, around half or more of mobile phone users in nearly all countries report having used their phones over the past 12 months to learn something important for work or school. 
  • Digital divides emerge in the new mobile-social environment. People with smartphones and social media – as well as younger people, those with higher levels of education, and men – are in some ways reaping more benefits than others, potentially contributing to digital divides. 
    • People with smartphones are much more likely to engage in activities on their phones than people with less sophisticated devices – even if the activity itself is quite simple. For example, people with smartphones are more likely than those with feature or basic phones to send text messages in each of the 11 countries surveyed, even though the activity is technically feasible from all mobile phones. Those who have smartphones are also much more likely to look up information for their households, including about health and government services. 
    •  There are also major differences in mobile usage by age and education level in how their devices are – or are not – broadening their horizons. Younger people are more likely to use their phones for nearly all activities asked about, whether those activities are social, information-seeking or commercial. Phone users with higher levels of education are also more likely to do most activities on their phones and to interact with those who are different from them regularly than those with lower levels of education. 
    •  Gender, too, plays a role in what people do with their devices and how they are exposed to different people and information. Men are more likely than women to say they encounter people who are different from them, whether in terms of race, politics, religion or income. And men tend to be more likely to look up information about government services and to obtain political news and information. 

These findings are drawn from a Pew Research Center survey conducted among 28,122 adults in 11 countries from Sept. 7 to Dec. 7, 2018. In addition to the survey, the Center conducted focus groups with participants in Kenya, Mexico, the Philippines and Tunisia in March 2018, and their comments are included throughout the report. 

Read the full report at https://www.pewinternet.org/2019/08/22/in-emerging-economies-smartphone-and-social-media-users-have-broader-social-networks.

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Nokia to be first with Android 10

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Nokia is likely to be the first smartphone brand to roll out Android 10, after its manufacturer, HMD Global, announced that the Android 10 software upgrade would start in the fourth quarter of 2019.

Previously named Android Q, it was given the number after Google announced it was ditching sweet and dessert names due to confusion in different languages. Android 10 is due for release at the end of the year.

Juho Sarvikas, chief product officer of HMD Global said: “With a proven track record in delivering software updates fast, Nokia smartphones were the first whole portfolio to benefit from a 2-letter upgrade from Android Nougat to Android Oreo and then Android Pie. We were the fastest manufacturer to upgrade from Android Oreo to Android Pie across the range. 

“With today’s roll out plan we look set to do it even faster for Android Pie to Android 10 upgrades. We are the only manufacturer 100% committed to having the latest Android across the entire portfolio.”

HMD Global has given a guarantee that Nokia smartphone owners benefit from two years of OS upgrades and 3 years of security updates.

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