Small data can be described as a building block for the IoT and the volume of data that the billions of devices lying at the edge of the Internet of Things will need a strategy for processing and analysing, writes RESHAAD SHA, CEO at SqwidNet.
The volume of data that the billions of things lying at the edge of the Internet of Things (IoT) will generate needs a comprehensive strategy for protocol mediation, processing, analysing, storing, securing, applying, and even sharing data to deliver value-creating and scalable use cases to industries and consumers. But, while trying to figure out how to manage “Big Data”, it is easy to forget that, when it comes to the IoT, it is actually the little things that matter. With the objective of maximising energy efficiency, many sensors are configured to only send small packets of data which, for convenience sake, can be called small data.
Small data is, for example, the temperature inside the storage area of a truck carrying perishable goods, sent out once every 10 minutes. It is the data relayed from a sensor placed above a parking bay that notes when the space is taken. Or the tiny packet of data relayed once a day from a water level sensor inside a reservoir, logging whether it is submerged or not. Small data gives context and enables us to identify patterns in behaviour, enabling machine learning, and driving data analytics, opening up a big world of opportunity.
The need for small data
The amount of data sent out in each case is minuscule – often no more than just a few bytes in size. And it needs to be, since larger data packets can place a heavy payload burden on the base station of a wireless IoT network that needs to connect and service millions of things. Hence, while it is easy to say “don’t sweat the small stuff”, for the IoT, it is the small stuff that truly matters. This is because all these small data packets eventually make up larger data sets from which to draw certain information. Take for example the parking-bay-sensor data mentioned earlier. Using the collected data from a parking lot over a period of months, the shopping centre management can trace a pattern of busy periods and quiet ones. This enables them to notify tenants when to run specials to attract more customers.
Even more important in future
As IoT usability expands, the reliance on small data packets that deliver more points of context become even more important. In certain use cases, a whole cascade of events will be triggered as soon as one sensor sends through specific data. One case in point is a patient being monitored at home – something we will see a lot more of as telehealth becomes more commonplace.
When accelerometer data from a wearable on an aged patient records an abrupt stop, it might indicate an injurious fall. This will trigger an automatic notification to the next of kin and the patient’s doctor. If no further movement from the patient is detected for a certain time, emergency services will be alerted to dispatch an ambulance. Furthermore, the patient’s smart home security system could also send out an access code once the ambulance crew arrives. This complete range of events is subject to the reliability of a small data sensor and a trustworthy network.
A network to depend on
To ensure the dependability of small data emanating from IoT sensors, SqwidNet, a subsidiary of DFA, is rolling out the SIGFOX IoT network in South Africa. The SqwidNet network is purpose built for listening to and delivering small packets of contextual data from these billions of connected things. Importantly, the SIGFOX standard ensures low-power usage, which is key to maximising sensors’ battery life.
Since our launch in November 2016, we have successfully deployed the network across all of South Africa’s eight major metros and we currently cover over 47% of the population. The network will exceed 85% of the population by the end of the year.
While the growth of IoT is a given, it is important to ensure that the foundations being laid now are stable and futureproof. To this end, securing small data’s place in the setup remains crucial. It its one small step for data; one giant leap for IoT.
Huge appetite for foldable phones – when prices fall
Samsung, Huawei and Motorola have all shown their cards, but consumers are concerned about durability, size, and enhanced use cases, according to Strategy Analytics
Foldable devices are a long-awaited disrupter in the smartphone market, exciting leading-edge early adopters keen for a bold new type of device. But the acceptance of foldable devices by mainstream segments will depend on the extent to which the current barriers to adoption are addressed.
Major brands have been throwing their foldable bets into the hat to see what the market wants from a foldable, namely how big the screens should be and how the devices should fold. Samsung and Huawei have both designed devices that unfold from smartphones to tablets, each with their own method of how the devices go about folding. Motorola has recently designed a smartphone that folds in half, and it resembles a flip phone.
Assessing consumer desire for foldable smartphones, a new report from the User Experience Strategies group at Strategy Analytics has found that the perceived value of the foldable form does not outweigh the added cost.
Key report findings include:
- The idea of having a larger-displayed smartphone in a portable size is perceived as valuable to the vast majority of consumers in the UK and the US. But, willingness to pay extra for a foldable device does not align with the desire to purchase one. Manufacturers must understand that there will be low sell-through until costs come down.
- But as the acceptance for traditional smartphone display sizes continues to increase, so does the imposed friction of trying to use them one-handed. Unless a foldable phone has a wider folded state, entering text when closed is too cumbersome, forcing users to utilize two hands to enter text, when in the opened state.
- Use cases need to be adequately demonstrated for consumers to fully understand and appreciate the potential for a foldable phone, though their priorities seemed fixed on promoting ‘two devices in one’ equaling a better video viewing experience. Identification and promotion of meaningful new use cases will be vital to success.
Christopher Dodge, Associate Director, UXIP and report author said: “As multitasking will look to be a core selling point for foldable phones, it is imperative that the execution be simplified and intuitive. Our data suggests there are a lot of uncertainties that come with foldable phone ownership, stemming mainly from concerns with durability and size, in addition to concerns over enhanced use cases.
“But our data also shows that when the consumers are able to use a foldable phone in hand, there is a solid reduction of doubt and concern about the concept. This means that the in-store experience may more important than ever in driving awareness, capabilities, and potential use cases.”
Said Paul Brown, Director, UXIP: “The big question is whether the perceived value will outweigh the added cost; and the initial response from consumers is ‘no.’ The ability for foldable displays to resolve real consumer pain-points is, in our view critical to whether these devices will become a niche segment of the smartphone market or the dominant form-factor of the future. Until costs come down, these devices will not take off.”
New exploit exposes credit cards on mobile phones
Check Point Security has found that handsets using Qualcomm chipsets that hold credit and debit card credentials are at risk of a new exploit.
Now it’s more important than ever to update your phone.
Check Point security has found a vulnerability in mobile devices that run Android, which allows credit card details to be accessed by hackers.
Mobile operating systems like Android offer a Rich Execution Environment (REE), providing a hugely extensive and versatile runtime environment, which allows apps to run on the device. However, while bringing flexibility and capability, REE leaves devices vulnerable to a wide range of security threats. A Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) is designed to reside alongside the REE and provide a safe area on the device to protect assets and to execute trusted code. Qualcomm makes use of a secure virtual processor, which is often referred to as the “secure world”, in comparison to the “non-secure world”, where REE resides.
But Check Point “fuzzed” a “hole” into this secure world
In a 4-month research project, Check Point researchers attempted and succeeded to reverse Qualcomm’s “Secure World” operating system. Check Point researchers leveraged a “fuzzing” technique to expose the hole. Fuzz testing (fuzzing) is a quality assurance technique used to discover coding errors and security loopholes in software, operating systems or networks. It involves inputting massive amounts of random data, called fuzz, to the test subject in an attempt to make it crash.
Check Point implemented a custom-made fuzzing tool, which tested trusted code on Samsung, LG, and Motorola devices. Through fuzzing, Check Point found 4 vulnerabilities in trusted code implemented by Samsung (including S10), 1 in Motorola, 1 in LG, but all code sourced by Qualcomm itself. To address the vulnerability, the runtime of Android needs to be protected from both attackers and users. This is typically achieved by moving the secure storage software to a hardware-supported TEE.
Check Point Research disclosed its findings directly to the companies and gave them time to patch vulnerabilities. Samsung patched three vulnerabilities and LG patched one. Motorola and Qualcomm responded, but have yet to provide a patch, and there is no confirmation of a release date yet.
Check Point Research has urged mobile phone users to stay vigilant and check their credit and debit card providers for any unusual activity. In the meantime, they are working with the vendors mentioned to issue patches.