The Check Point research team recently uncovered a new Android malware campaign on Google Play, which it calls: Viking Horde. The malware campaign is being used for fraud, DDoS attacks and to send spam.
Viking Horde conducts ad fraud, but can also be used for other attack purposes such as DDoS attacks, spam messages, and more. At least five instances of Viking Horde managed to bypass Google Play malware scans so far.
Check Point notified Google about the malware on 5 May 2016.
On all devices — rooted or not — Viking Horde creates a botnet that uses proxied IP addresses to disguise ad clicks, generating revenue for the attacker. A botnet is a group of devices controlled by hackers without the knowledge of their owners. The bots are used for various reasons based on the distributed computing capabilities of all the devices. The larger the botnet, the greater its capabilities.
On rooted devices, Viking Horde delivers additional malware payloads that can execute any code remotely, potentially compromising the security of data on the device. It also takes advantage of root access privileges to make itself difficult or even impossible to remove manually.
Meet the Horde
The most widely-downloaded instance of Viking Horde is the app: Viking Jump, which was uploaded to Google Play on 15 April 2016, and has achieved 50,000 – 100,000 downloads. In some local markets, Viking Jump is a Google Play top free app.
The oldest instance is Wi-Fi Plus, which was uploaded to Google Play on 29 March 2016. Other instances include the apps Memory Booster, Parrot Copter, and Simple 2048. All Viking Horde-infected apps have a relatively low reputation which the research team speculates may be because users have noticed the odd behaviour, such as asking for root permissions.
The botnet created by the attackers spread worldwide to users from various targeted countries. The Check Point research team collected data on the distribution of victims from one of the many Command & Control servers (C&C’s) used by attackers, which is illustrated below:
How Viking Horde Works
From its research of Viking Horde’s code and the C&C servers used in the attack, our research team can illustrate the malware process flow.
1. The malware is first installed from Google Play. While the app initiates the game, it installs several components, outside of the application’s directory. The components are randomly named with pseudo-system words from a preset list, such as core.bin, clib.so, android.bin and update.bin. They are installed on the SD card if the device is not rooted, and to root/data if it is. One of these files is used to exchange information between the malware’s components. A second file contains the list of the generated names of the components, to make them available to all components.
2. The malware then checks whether the device is rooted:
- If the device is rooted, the malware initiates two additional components:
app_exec. Implements communication protocol with the server.
app_exec_watch_dog Binary implements update and persistency mechanism. Watchdog monitors app_exec process and restarts it if needed.
- If the device is not rooted, the malware loads app_exec file as a shared library and calls its functions by JNI – Java Native Interface, which allows Java code run native binaries
In both scenarios, once app_exec application is installed, it establishes a TCP connection with the C&C server and starts the communication. The communication consists of the following commands:
- Ping. Every 10 seconds application sends 5 bytes to the server. The server responds with the same 5 bytes.
- Update of device information: Sends to server charge battery, type of connection and phone number.
- The next step is to accomplish the main malicious functionality by creating an anonymous proxy connection. The C&C sends a “create_proxy” command with two IP addresses and ports as parameters. These IP addresses are used to open two sockets one for a remote server (which is a client of the botnet exploiting the anonymous proxy) and the other for the remote target. Then it reads the data received from the first socket and channels it to the target host. Using this technique, the malware developer (or someone using this botnet as “malware as a service”) can hide his IP behind the infected device’s IP.
It is important to understand that even if the device is not rooted, Viking Horde turns the device into a proxy capable of sending and receiving information per the attacker’s commands. Below is an example of an infected device as seen from an attacker’s C&C. The remoteIP is the proxy’s IP, and the socksIP is the C&C server’s IP. The C&C contains some information about the device including its OS version, battery status, and GPS coordinates. In this case, the device is located in the US on T-Mobile.
The botnet is controlled by many C&C servers, each managing a few hundred devices. The malware’s primary objective is to hijack a device and then use it to simulate clicks on advertisements in websites to accumulate profit. The malware needs this proxy to bypass ad-nets’ anti-fraud mechanisms by using distributed IPs.
Some user reviews of the app also claim it sends premium SMS messages, as seen in the screen capture below. This botnet could be used for various malicious purposes, such as DDoS attacks, spamming and delivering malware.
Vikings are a Persistent Horde
The malware uses several techniques to remain on the device. First, Viking Horde installs several components with system-related names, so that they are hard to locate and uninstall.
If the device is rooted, two more mechanisms are set in place:
The app_exec component monitors the main application’s existence. If the user uninstalled the main application, app_exec decrypts a component called com.android.security and silently installs it. This component will be hidden, and run after boot. This component is a copy of itself and has the same capabilities.
The watchdog component installs the app_exec component updates. If app_exec is removed, the watchdog will reinstall it from the update folder.
Apparently, some users even noticed this activity:
Bonus component for rooted devices
Perhaps the most dangerous functionality is the update mechanism. The update mechanism is split between app_exec and watchdog components. app_exec downloads the new binary from the server and stores it to /data directory with the app_exec_update name.
Watchdog periodically checks if an update file exists and replaces app_exec with this file. This means that upon the server’s command, Viking Horde downloads a new binary. The watchdog component will replace the application with it. This allows downloading and executing any remote code on the device.
South Africans are searching in the dark, according to the latest Google Search trends.
With more 1 million search queries generated in the space of 76 hours, load-shedding was by far the top trending search on Google South Africa this week.
Valentine’s Day came a distant second.
After news emerged last Sunday of the impending stage 3 load shedding, South Africans had generated more than 1-million load-shedding search queries by the time Tuesday came around:
- “Loadshedding schedule” – generated more than 100k searches on Sunday
- “Load shedding schedule” – generated more than 100k searches on Sunday
- “Eskom load shedding” – generated more than 100k searches on Sunday
- “Load shedding Cape Town” – generated more than 50k searches on Sunday
- “Load shedding schedule” – generated more than 400k on Monday
- “Load shedding Johannesburg” – generated more than 20k searches on Monday
- “Load shedding schedule” – generated more than 200k search queries on Tuesday
Leading up to Valentine’s Day, South Africans generated close to 300k search queries related to the romantic festival, including searches for quotes and gift ideas:
- “Valentines Day” generated more than 100k search queries on Thursday
- “Happy Valentines Day Images” and “Valentines Day Images” generated more than 10k search queries each on Thursday, with “Happy Valentines Day 2019” generating more than 20k search queries on Wednesday
- “Valentines Day Specials 2019” generated more than 5k search queries on Thursday
- “Love quotes” generated more than 5k search queries on Thursday
- “Valentines Day quotes” generated more than 100k search queries and “Valentine messages” generated more than 50 000 search queries on Wednesday
Search trends information is gleaned from data collated by Google based on what South Africans have been searching for and asking Google. Google processes more than 40 000 search queries every second. This translates to more than a billion searches per day and 1.2 trillion searches per year worldwide. Live Google search trends data is available at https://www.google.co.za/trends/hottrends#pn=p40
Thanks to the growing popularity of video-on-demand services, there’s a new opportunity to help kickstart the careers of local filmmakers.
Numerous Hollywood blockbusters (District 9, Tomb Raider 2018, and The Avengers: Age of Ultron to name a few) have featured substantial shoots in Johannesburg and Cape Town. While providing great opportunities for SA’s production talent, aspiring writers and directors don’t get the same benefit.
So where can local creatives showcase their work? Broadcast TV isn’t a natural home for unknown short films, and while self-publishing platforms are readily available hosting options, it’s tough to get noticed and get traffic when competing with videos from across the planet.
But with the emergence of video-on-demand services into the mainstream, there’s now a solution. The African film school AFDA has teamed up with the streaming service Showmax to give local talent a much larger platform than ever before. From 18 February, eighteen of the best recent short films made by AFDA students from their Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban and Port Elizabeth campuses will be live on Showmax. Drama, documentary, fantasy, and animation are all represented, in pieces running from under eight minutes to almost half-an-hour long. The full list of movies is included below.
Teresa Passchier, CEO of AFDA, said: “AFDA, Africa’s number-one school for the Creative Economy, is proud to kickstart this exciting and meaningful journey with Showmax and AFDA students, ensuring emerging young African filmmakers’ voices are heard and given a platform. It’s ground-breaking to share young, local, culturally relevant content on the same platform as Hollywood blockbusters. I am certain that this unique initiative will serve to boost and develop the African film industry and the careers of many young South African and African students alike.”
Included in the short films coming to Showmax are the award winners Junior and O-Puncha. Junior, directed by Bert Dijkstra, picked up the Audience Award in the Made in South Africa Competition at the shnit Worldwide Shortfilmfestival Awards 2017. O-Puncha, directed by Adam Hansen, won two awards at the 5th annual Eldorado Film Festival: Best Student Made Short, and Best Editing – Alexander La Cock.
Another celebrated film is Sicela Amanzi directed by Mlu Godola, which talks to the subject of water shortage. The film’s heroine Zoleka is a mild-mannered young woman forced to go to extreme lengths when a small community’s only source of water unexpectedly collapses. The power of films like this is they shine a light on critical topical issues in new ways.
Speaking about working with the film school, Candice Fangueiro, Head of Content for Showmax, said: “There’s
AFDA is an Academy Award-winning institution, founded in 1994, and the first and only African film school to win an Oscar – for the Best Foreign Student film in 2006, the postgraduate film Elalini, directed by Tristan Holmes.
The full list of AFDA short films coming to Showmax is as follows:
|Lullaby from the Crypt||Keenan Lott & Raven Davids||Animation|
|Ko Ga Cherenyane||Sibonokuhle Myataza||Documentary|
|Mallemeule||Jaco Van Bosch||Drama|
|Canal Street||Brodie Muirhead||Drama|
|On the Fence||Warrick Bews||Drama|
|The Righteous Few||Lindo Langa||Drama|
|Hlogoma Peak||Luke Ahrens||Drama|
|Frozen Flame||Cameron Heathman||Animation|
|Wolf||Brett van Dort||Fantasy|
|The Walk Home||Sisanda Dyantyi||Drama|
|Doreen||Luvuyo Equiano Nyawose||Drama|
|Sicela Amanzi||Mlu Godola||Drama|