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SALT tests cosmic ruler

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The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) in Sutherland has begun testing a Laser Frequency Comb, a device that uses powerful lasers and photonic crystal fibres to produce the equivalent of a ruler that is both extremely long and has very finely spaced graduations.

The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) in Sutherland has begun testing a Laser Frequency Comb,  a calibration device that uses powerful lasers and photonic crystal fibres to produce the equivalent of a ruler that is both extremely long and has very finely spaced graduations. The pioneers of this decade old technology were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2005.

A team of laser physicists from the Heriot-Watt University, Derryck Reid and Richard McCracken, along with astronomers from SALT and South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), Éric Depagne, Rudi Kuhn, Nicolas Erasmus and Lisa Crause, installed the Laser Frequency Comb device on the SALT’s High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) to perform the first routine comb-enabled scientific observations on a 10m-class telescope.

“The Laser Frequency Comb is a significant improvement in the way astronomers will calibrate their spectra in the future”, says Éric Depagne, project leader and HRS Instrument scientist. “It allows reaching much higher accuracies when measuring radial velocities, while adding something that is completely missing when using standard calibration sources – traceability. Since the electronic components and the optical devices are all linked to calibrated atomic clocks, we are sure that if we repeat the measurements in 20 years, they will be comparable to those we do today. And that is something fundamentally new”.

Professor Derryck Reid from Heriot-Watt University said: “We’ve been developing the Laser Frequency Comb at Heriot-Watt University for 10 years and to finally demonstrate it on the SALT telescope is really exciting. Its accuracy and precision allows astronomers to derive precise fundamental parameters for a wide range of astronomical objects, from the existence of planets around distant stars, to the determination of the variability of the first generation of stars and the measurements of isotopic ratios that provide detailed information on the nature of supernovae”.

Astronomers determine the composition of stars by using spectrographs to split the light into various colours, exactly like water droplets produce rainbows when it rains. Each element we know in the Universe has a unique signature. Sodium, for instance produces bright yellow light, Neon glows red, and Magnesium has a blueish hue. By identifying the individual signatures of elements in the spectra of celestial objects, astronomers can infer the chemical composition, and many more parameters, such as the speed at which objects move relative to the earth, their temperature, and their mass.

In certain studies, astronomers must look for small changes in the colour of light emitted by stars. For example, the gravitational pull of a planet orbiting a star imprints a tiny wobble on the star, causing the colour of the star’s light to fluctuate by a small amount. As astronomers search for smaller, more “Earth-like” planets they need better tools with which to measure these tiny fluctuations. The Laser Frequency Comb could provide the precision measurement capability which is needed for this exciting new science.

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Welcome to world of 2099

The world of 2099 will be unrecognisable from the world of today, but it can be predicted, says one visionary. ARTHUR GOLDSTUCK met him in Singapore.

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Futuristic structures tower over the landscape. Giant, alien-looking trees light up with dazzling colours amid the hundreds of plant species that grow up their trunks. Cosmetic stores sell their wares via public touch-screens, with products delivered instantly in drawers below the screens.

This is not a vision of the future. It is a sample of Singapore today. But it is also an inkling of the world we may all experience in the future.

Singapore was the venue, last week, of the World Cities Summit, where engineers, politicians, investors and visionaries rubbed shoulders as they talked about the strategies and policies that would enhance urban living in the future.

As part of the Summit, global payment technologies leader Mastercard hosted a small media briefing by one of Singapore’s leading thinkers about the future, Dr Damian Tan, managing director of Vickers Venture Partners. The company’s slogan “We invest in the extraordinary,” offers a small clue to Tan’s perspective.

“We look as far forward as 2099 because, as a venture capital firm, we invest in the long term,” he tells a group of journalists from Africa and the Middle East. “Companies explode in growth because there is value in the future. If there is no growth, they won’t explode.”

The big question that the Smart Cities Summit and Mastercard are trying to help answer is, what will cities look like in the year 2099? Tan can’t give an exact answer, but he offers a framework that helps one approach the question.

“If you want to look at 81 years into the future, and understand the change that will come, you need to double that amount and look into the past. That takes us to 1856. The difference between then and now is the difference you can expect between now and 2099.”

Click here or on the page link below to read on: Page 2: Soldiers and Health in 2099.

  •    Arthur Goldstuck is founder of World Wide Worx and editor-in-chief of Gadget.co.za. Follow him on Twitter on @art2gee and on YouTube

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Street art goes electric

Kaspersky Lab and British street artist D*Face have unveiled the first-ever “art helmet” design at the Formula E finale for electric cars in New York.

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The ‘Save The World’ helmets will be raced by DS Virgin Racing’s drivers, Sam Bird and Alex Lynn, as they traverse the New York street circuit during the final races of the Formula E season.

The announcement signals the first art helmet by a Formula E team, continuing the heritage of art in motorsport and the cybersecurity brand’s commitment to contemporary art, creativity and innovation. D*Face took inspiration from Kaspersky Lab’s tagline, “A Company To Save The World”, and hopes that his colourful work will inspire people to take positive action.

D*Face will announce his first-ever art car design with a custom-made livery for the DS Virgin Racing Team. Its design will be released at the “Art Goes Green” event after Saturday’s race. The helmets and art car are the latest installations in the “Save the World” collection, following a major permanent public mural that was installed in Brooklyn, New York, in May.

D*Face, whose real name is Dean Stockton, said: “It is exciting to work with Kaspersky Lab on this project and create art with a real message of hope for a better future. After all, this is our world and we need to look after it. It will take every one of us to make a real lasting, impactful change. I love the mentality of the DS Virgin Racing Team and that of Formula E by showcasing sport in a way that doesn’t harm the environment, but is still just as exhilarating and fun.

“It is time for us all to stand together and make a change… be that stopping data steals, climate change, plastic waste or using damaging fuels. I want everyone to make a pledge to do one thing that will help make a change.”

As a sponsor of DS Virgin Racing Team, Kaspersky Lab is responsible for protecting the team’s devices against cyber threats. The company sees the technical environment in the global sport of Formula E as the next frontier in furthering its research and development of new technologies to keep vehicles secure in the digital world.

Sylvain Filippi, Managing Director at DS Virgin Racing, said: “The whole team fully supports this great initiative and our thanks got to Kaspersky and D*Face for their collaboration. It’s an honour to have such an innovative artist bring his talents to bear in our team ahead of the season-finale; the car, drivers’ crash helmets and mural all look amazing.”

Aldo Fucelli Pessot del Bo, Head of Global Partnerships and Sponsorships at Kaspersky Lab added: “There is a need for innovation on a global scale, both in contemporary art and in the fast-growing sport of Formula E. Now, for the first time ever, Kaspersky Lab is proudly bringing together the two sectors in an effort to Save the World and unleash creativity, encourage freedom of expression and further innovation.”

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